Nephrolithiasis or kidney stones prevalence, within the United States continues to increase along with obesity. It has been reported that kidney stones in children is increasing by 6% annually (Huffington Post). In 2000 alone there were over 2 million visits were made to hospitals around the United States, which ended with a diagnosis of kidney stones.
What Are Kidney Stones
There are several different types of kidney stones including:
- Cystine stones is made up of cystine crystals, which are amino acid and essential in building muscles and nerves. This type of stone is rare and has been linked to a genetic disorder.
- Struvite stones contains mineral magnesium and ammonia. This type of stone has been linked to some sort of urinary infection.
- Calcium stones contain calcium, which is essential in building strong bones and muscles. This type of stone has been linked to eating more calcium that the body can utilize.
- Uric acid stones contain uric acid, which is an animal protein
What Causes Kidney Stones
- Decreased consumption of water
- Increased consumption of sodium, caffeine, and fructose
- Urinary tract anomalies
- Children with metabolic disorders such as hypercalciuria has been linked to kidney stone formation
Symptoms of Kidney Stones in Children
- Dysuria (pain on urination)
- Hematuria (blood in urine)
- Sharp pain in the back or lower abdominal area
Small stones may be able to pass, without too much difficulty.
How to Dissolve Kidney Stones
- Shock wave lithotripsy (crushes the kidney stone, so passing will be easier)
- Ureteroscope (removes the stones that is located in the ureter)
- Lithotripsy with a ureteroscope (breaks up the stone to make it easier to pass)
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (a tube is inserted through the child’s back and shock waves are used to break up the stone)
Preventions of Kidney Stones in Children
- Limit calcium, sodium, fructose, and oxalate foods
- Increase potassium citrate, while avoid purine foods (cystine stones)
- Consume more water intake